Truly Silent Reading

“I still suffer twinges of guilt when I have to ask students to stop talking during reading workshop. But they’re talking about books!…And they’re not reading. And they’re distracting the readers around them.” – Nancie Atwell, The Reading Zone p. 23
I have experienced this guilt and struggled with silent reading as well.  It is often hard to enforce complete silence during reading time.  I find the following helpful for sharing excitement for books, but maintaining silence.
1. Designate a time for groups to exchange ideas after silent reading. Consider literary circles.  Always let students control:
• What they read: students self-select, but may also abandon a book during the daily post-reading group discussion;
• How long they will discuss;
• What they will discuss: they should ask all the questions;
• How they will discuss: they can respond by talking in L1, L2, or sketching, then exchanging sketchbooks.

 

2. Have a system for students to write down ideas to share later.  In those moments children have an idea they want to share, get them in the habit of jotting down a quick note on a bookmark or post-it.  Note this should be voluntary.
3. Be available.  Instead of talking to a friend and distracting them, they should be able to share with you.  Make sure you whisper with students.

4. Books on tape and ear buds  as listening stations may help students get in a silent reading habit.  It is not a long-term solution and can be hard to pull together throughout the year, but may be worth it for the very first few books.  When I first introduce literary circles, I give students a table full of 20 or so good first titles to choose from, each with sets of 5 books, an audio book, and a literary circles contract simply to set the right serious tone.  Quickly students familiarize themselves with norms and mature as readers.  After a few weeks/a few books, they get free-reign to pick any book the library, typically leaving audio books behind.

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The Toolkit

Stephen Krashen recently published the Story Listening Toolkit, a summary of supports for language learners.

The purpose of the Toolkit is not:

  • to teach word lists; “Teaching vocabulary lists is not efficient” (Krashen, 2004, p. 19).
  • to make words or targets “100% comprehensible, with students being able to understand, and translate, every word” …but the goal is rather to make “the input appear to be fully comprehensible” (Krashen, 2013, p. 3).
  • “full mastery of the rule or vocabulary in a short time frame” (Krashen, 2016) Note: weekly tests of targets create pressure to master targets.

The purpose of the Toolkit is:

  • “partial acquisition, enough to understand the text. Full acquisition of the targeted item develops gradually.” (Krashen, 2016)
  • to provide rich input : “the best input for acquisition is input that contains maximum richness but remains comprehensible.” (Krashen, 2013, 4).
  • to “Just enjoy the story” (Mason, 2016).  Enjoying shared stories builds interest in reading.

 

 


Cited:

Mason, B. (October 13, 2016).  COFLT conference presentation: Story Listening.

Krashen, S. D. (2004). The power of reading: Insights from the research. Westport, CT: Libraries Unlimited.

Krashen, S. (2013). The Case for Non-Targeted, Comprehensible Input. Journal of Bilingual Education Research & Instruction 2013 15(1): 102-110. Retrieved from http://www.sdkrashen.com/content/articles/nontargeted_input.pdf

Krashen, S. (2016, July 26). Targeting 1 and Targeting 2: Working paper [Web log post]. Retrieved from http://skrashen.blogspot.com/2016/07/targeting-1-and-targeting-2-working.html

 

Le chouchou – Avoiding Teachers Pets

“Chouchou,” “consentido,” or “class pet”  is an old and universal problem.   Elisha Babad documented the subtitles of teachers’ behaviors for decades and found children as young as 6 perceive differential treatment.

Some principles and strategies that work to avoid this problem:

  1. Library time. Often teachers are perceived to give more time or more positive feedback to traditionally-successful readers. Plan time to chat one-on-one with lost kids milling around the library without a book, while your successful readers (“teacher’s pet” types) are reading independently.
  2. Change up your seating chart and make sure you give small reading groups equal time.  The students sitting nearest you (feel they) get the most attention and often achieve more.  Constantly move your back row to the front.
  3. Avoid class jobs or consider rotating jobs. All Kindergarteners know, being line-leader matters.  Similarly, with Learning Experience Approach or co-created stories, one student gets to be the “story driver.”  You can certainly seek ways to rotate or share these roles equally, but this often introduces the problem that some students are more vocal leaders, some are quiet.  Also, how many Kindergarteners (or high schoolers) can wait six weeks until it’s their turn?  I recommend avoiding class jobs or special leadership roles during whole-group time.  A more natural, egalitarian leadership tends to evolve in student-led literary circles or small group time without direct teacher intervention.
  4. Periodic Assessments should notice all children, especially struggling learners.  Each time you observe something noteworthy, consider jotting down your observation (successes or struggles) on a Post-it.  Stick Post-its in each child’s records page, alphabetized in an class binder.  Flip through your binder monthly to find students you notice less. Anecdotal records can be helpful with administrators and parent conferences and help you cut down on high-accountability testing.

 

Note: a huge thanks to Dr. Beniko Mason for this and many other practical lessons.

Recycling

Recycling is allowing words and phrases to repeat naturally in a story or text.  Sometimes we can apply a little intentionality to the stories and words we choose to use recycling to our advantage.

Recycling targets is appropriate for beginners but should be done with caution.  Do not test students on targets and never pressure yourself to “teach” recycled targets for mastery (targeting 1).

Here is an example of the first two weeks of stories for true beginners.  Very quickly, I found this level of planning was unnecessary.  With each story, cast an increasingly wider “net” and let recycling happen more and more naturally.

 

Nontargeted recycling occurs naturally through narrow listening and reading.

livro

Use students’ interests to find one type of story or book and stick with it for a while.  Spend a few weeks telling Greek myths and the words “god,” “causes,” “earth,” and “sky” will recycle.  Then, move on to “prince,” “princess,” “spell,” and “castle.”   Operas/tragic love, knight’s quests, creation stories, Aesop fables, trickster stories, tall tales, etc. each have a set of words that naturally recycle.  Academic language will be naturally included in narrow reading (Krashen 2004, 4).

One important consideration for shared oral stories is that when students can not simply put a book down, the teacher should be ready to abandon any story or type of story if interest wanes.

 


Cited:

Krashen, S.  (2004). The Case for Narrow Reading. Language Magazine. 3(5):17-19. Accessed at: http://www.sdkrashen.com/content/articles/narrow.pdf

Krashen, S. (1996.) The case for narrow listening. System 24(1): 97-100. Accessed at: http://sdkrashen.com/content/articles/the_case_for_narrow_listening.pdf

Krashen, S. (April, 2004). Free Voluntary reading: New Research, Applications, and Controversies. Paper presented at the RELC conference, Singapore.

Assessment: fast and easy tools

Authentic Assessments like story retells, reader’s notebooks, and student conferences take more time than traditional tests.  Even so, low-accountability, no-test/no comprehension question stories and books make love of reading possible.  Here are some free, easy-to-use authentic assessment tools to save you time.

 

Rubistar

With the exception of sheltered instruction, 90% of my assessments require just 2-3 rubrics (here) which I use again and again.  For those rare times I need a new rubric, I don’t re-invent the wheel; I browse the free rubrics at Rubistar and adapt them.

 

Digital Reading Logs

Biblionasium and Bookopolis are two great tools for digital reading logs, and they are both alternatives to GoodReads.com (which I would not recommend for K-12 as student information is not secure).

 

SpokenText

Since my students have switched to digital readers’ notebooks (readers’ blogs) and digital Story Listening journals, I just copy and paste to create an mp3 to listen to on my daily commute.  The audio support is also helpful if your students prefer to write in L1 and your espagnol is no bueno.

 

Speechnotes

Sort of the opposite of SpokenText, this app takes speech and turns it into text for you to analyze.  Lower accountability for students by testing the input, not the child.  Simply click the red record button, tell your story as you normally would, then you end up with a text 1. to modify and read with students and 2. to evaluate using the Lextutor tool below.

 

Lextutor

This site has amazing tools based on Laufer and Nation’s Lexical Frequency Profiler.  Besides the quantitative text mentioned above, you create Cloze tests for occasional bench-marking or classroom research.  Another great feature is the recycling profiler, which I demonstrate here.

 

https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B0nMIYjHI-FOcE9iYXBvVHhCRUU/view?usp=sharing

 

Learning Strategies

Since “No Child Left Behind…Strategies entered everyday practice in classrooms” where students maintain “deliberate control, goal-directedness, and awareness” of what they are reading (Afflerbach, Pearson, & Paris, 367).  The message: reading is work and explicitly learned strategies help us read/work more deliberately.

My message to my students is very different: reading is fun.  You should not notice how you are reading except when something’s wrong and you don’t love what you read. When you find books you love, you will naturally predict, draw conclusions, evaluate characters, etc.  No need to put the book down to fill out a diagram when you’re lost in a good book.  No need to chop up text to “turn and talk.”

Krashen’s “Din in the Head” Hypothesis states that students acquire best when so engrossed in a message, they are not aware of the language (Krashen, 1983). Getting lost in a book is not only more pleasant, it allows implicit acquisition of “the strategies …that we do anyway, that we are “wired to do” (Krashen & Brown 2007, 4).

Only occasionally can learning strategies help students who can’t seem to get lost in a reading “flow.”  Even so, strategies are not skills to build but rather ways to deal with obstacles to compelling, comprehensible input: 1. What do I do when I don’t understand? (Brown, 2006) or 2. What do I do when I can’t find a good book?

1. What do I do when I don’t understand?

Stephen Krashen and Clara Lee Brown write that explicitly-taught strategies are effective only if they “make input more comprehensible, e.g. narrow reading, obtaining background knowledge” or “help content learning” (2007, 4).   However, “study skills” or skills that would have developed naturally (ex. predicting or drawing conclusions) “…should not be taught” (Krashen & Brown 2007, 4).

 

2. What do I do when I can’t find a good book? 

A_child_reading_a_book_by_Pratham_Books_-_Flickr_-_Pratham_Books

Janet Allen notes her students did not feel genuine “wonder” using a K-W-L.  They truly engaged with the text only if I did something to build background and create an emotional connection to the topic” (13).  Give students strategies that help them seek out and build interest in books: talking about books with friends, putting down boring books or skipping difficult passages, reading in a series, or asking a librarian for a read-alike.

Once students have found the perfectly compelling, perfectly comprehensible text that activates “Din in the Head” do not pull out a diagram.

 


Afflerbach, P. Pearson, D., & Paris, S. (February 2008). Clarifying Differences Between Reading Skills and Reading Strategies. The Reading Teacher, 61 (5), 364–373. Available at: http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/handle/2027.42/88049/RT.61.5.1.pdf?sequence=1

Allen, J., & Landaker, C. (2005). Reading history: a practical guide to improving literacy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Allington, R. & Gallagher, K. (2009).  Readicide : how schools are killing reading and what you can do about it.  Stenhouse Publishers: Portland, ME.

Brown, C. (2006). ESL Methods. Lecture, University of Tennessee.

Krashen, S. & Brown, C. L. (2007). What is Academic Language Proficiency? Singapore Tertiary English Teachers Society (STETS) Language & Communication Review: 6(1), 1-4 Available at: http://www.sdkrashen.com/content/articles/krashen_brown_alp.pdf

Krashen, S. D. (1983). The Din in the Head, Input, and the Language Acquisition Device. Foreign Language Annals, 16(1), 41-44. doi:10.1111/j.1944-9720.1983.tb01422.x

Synonyms, Antonyms, and Asides

Watch the first 3 minutes of this intermediate Story Listening demonstration.  In it, Dr. Beniko Mason makes use of the antonyms, synonyms, and asides.

A man “was poor, not rich…he had little”

“He longed for , wished for, wanted to have”

“a small house, a tiny hut”

“He lived a lonely life; he lived alone…He lived a quiet life.”

Something fell in a bush. “A bush is a small true, not a tall tree…like a rose bush.”

It was “wounded,” “hurt,”  “injured”

 

In the Story Listening Toolkit, Dr. Krashen and Dr. Mason suggest building on words students already know as you introduce new, rich and unfamiliar words. antonyms, synonyms, and asides builds the schematic constructs linking new messages and language to language we already understand.

The following diagram visually represents this strategy, but if this diagram seems confusing, ignore it and just follow Dr. Mason’s example above.  The end result should be natural, not formulaic.

 

Easiest

(ex. cognate)

Moderate

(not a cognate but high frequency)

Hardest

(not a cognate, low frequency)

synonym X X X
antonym X X X

 

Example 

 

Story 1:  Turandot  (English / French)

Easiest

(ex. cognate)

Moderate

(not a cognate but high frequency)

Hardest

(not a cognate, not high frequency)

romance love (they aren’t ready for harder words)
detest hate (they aren’t ready for harder words)

“Turandot wants love… she wants romance.  (Romance is the same in Spanish).”

“Turandot hates the princes…she detests them.  (Detest is the same Spanish)

…She does not love the princes.  The princes say they love her, but she hates them.”

 

Story 2:  Sweetheart Roland

Easiest

(ex. cognate)

Moderate

(not a cognate but high frequency)

Hardest

(not a cognate, not high frequency)

romance love sweetheart
detest hate loath

“She loves Roland.  Roland loves her.  It’s a serious romance. (serious and romance are the same in Spanish).  They are sweethearts.”

“The witch hates her.  She loathes her!  She wants her to die.”