Creating Visuals

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Myth: Story Listening is drawing a story.

Stage 1 of Story Listening uses drawing to create visuals by drawing them on the board during shared oral stories.  Later, students will slowly need fewer and fewer illustrations.  Eventually, they will prefer none at all. They will ask you to go faster than you can draw.

Dr. Beniko Mason informally that her intermediate students ask to hear a story once quickly with illustrations to get the gist; then they ask to hear it again without drawing.  Just ask your students what they prefer.

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The Toolkit

Stephen Krashen recently published the Story Listening Toolkit, a summary of supports for language learners.

The purpose of the Toolkit is not:

  • to teach word lists; “Teaching vocabulary lists is not efficient” (Krashen, 2004, p. 19).
  • to make words or targets “100% comprehensible, with students being able to understand, and translate, every word” …but the goal is rather to make “the input appear to be fully comprehensible” (Krashen, 2013, p. 3).
  • “full mastery of the rule or vocabulary in a short time frame” (Krashen, 2016) Note: weekly tests of targets create pressure to master targets.

The purpose of the Toolkit is:

  • “partial acquisition, enough to understand the text. Full acquisition of the targeted item develops gradually.” (Krashen, 2016)
  • to provide rich input : “the best input for acquisition is input that contains maximum richness but remains comprehensible.” (Krashen, 2013, 4).
  • to “Just enjoy the story” (Mason, 2016).  Enjoying shared stories builds interest in reading.

 

 


Cited:

Mason, B. (October 13, 2016).  COFLT conference presentation: Story Listening.

Krashen, S. D. (2004). The power of reading: Insights from the research. Westport, CT: Libraries Unlimited.

Krashen, S. (2013). The Case for Non-Targeted, Comprehensible Input. Journal of Bilingual Education Research & Instruction 2013 15(1): 102-110. Retrieved from http://www.sdkrashen.com/content/articles/nontargeted_input.pdf

Krashen, S. (2016, July 26). Targeting 1 and Targeting 2: Working paper [Web log post]. Retrieved from http://skrashen.blogspot.com/2016/07/targeting-1-and-targeting-2-working.html

 

Le chouchou – Avoiding Teachers Pets

“Chouchou,” “consentido,” or “class pet”  is an old and universal problem.   Elisha Babad documented the subtitles of teachers’ behaviors for decades and found children as young as 6 perceive differential treatment.

Some principles and strategies that work to avoid this problem:

  1. Library time. Often teachers are perceived to give more time or more positive feedback to traditionally-successful readers. Plan time to chat one-on-one with lost kids milling around the library without a book, while your successful readers (“teacher’s pet” types) are reading independently.
  2. Change up your seating chart and make sure you give small reading groups equal time.  The students sitting nearest you (feel they) get the most attention and often achieve more.  Constantly move your back row to the front.
  3. Avoid class jobs or consider rotating jobs. All Kindergarteners know, being line-leader matters.  Similarly, with Learning Experience Approach or co-created stories, one student gets to be the “story driver.”  You can certainly seek ways to rotate or share these roles equally, but this often introduces the problem that some students are more vocal leaders, some are quiet.  Also, how many Kindergarteners (or high schoolers) can wait six weeks until it’s their turn?  I recommend avoiding class jobs or special leadership roles during whole-group time.  A more natural, egalitarian leadership tends to evolve in student-led literary circles or small group time without direct teacher intervention.
  4. Periodic Assessments should notice all children, especially struggling learners.  Each time you observe something noteworthy, consider jotting down your observation (successes or struggles) on a Post-it.  Stick Post-its in each child’s records page, alphabetized in an class binder.  Flip through your binder monthly to find students you notice less. Anecdotal records can be helpful with administrators and parent conferences and help you cut down on high-accountability testing.

 

Note: a huge thanks to Dr. Beniko Mason for this and many other practical lessons.

Synonyms, Antonyms, and Asides

Watch the first 3 minutes of this intermediate Story Listening demonstration.  In it, Dr. Beniko Mason makes use of the antonyms, synonyms, and asides.

A man “was poor, not rich…he had little”

“He longed for , wished for, wanted to have”

“a small house, a tiny hut”

“He lived a lonely life; he lived alone…He lived a quiet life.”

Something fell in a bush. “A bush is a small true, not a tall tree…like a rose bush.”

It was “wounded,” “hurt,”  “injured”

 

In the Story Listening Toolkit, Dr. Krashen and Dr. Mason suggest building on words students already know as you introduce new, rich and unfamiliar words. antonyms, synonyms, and asides builds the schematic constructs linking new messages and language to language we already understand.

The following diagram visually represents this strategy, but if this diagram seems confusing, ignore it and just follow Dr. Mason’s example above.  The end result should be natural, not formulaic.

 

Easiest

(ex. cognate)

Moderate

(not a cognate but high frequency)

Hardest

(not a cognate, low frequency)

synonym X X X
antonym X X X

 

Example 

 

Story 1:  Turandot  (English / French)

Easiest

(ex. cognate)

Moderate

(not a cognate but high frequency)

Hardest

(not a cognate, not high frequency)

romance love (they aren’t ready for harder words)
detest hate (they aren’t ready for harder words)

“Turandot wants love… she wants romance.  (Romance is the same in Spanish).”

“Turandot hates the princes…she detests them.  (Detest is the same Spanish)

…She does not love the princes.  The princes say they love her, but she hates them.”

 

Story 2:  Sweetheart Roland

Easiest

(ex. cognate)

Moderate

(not a cognate but high frequency)

Hardest

(not a cognate, not high frequency)

romance love sweetheart
detest hate loath

“She loves Roland.  Roland loves her.  It’s a serious romance. (serious and romance are the same in Spanish).  They are sweethearts.”

“The witch hates her.  She loathes her!  She wants her to die.”


Extra Activities: Simplify, Simplify

At the end of class just before Labor Day vacation, my students reflected on how much they had learned in just 8 class periods.  They knew words like “says,” “go” and “goes away forever,” “love,” “feels sad or happy,” and their favorite “die!”  The students spontaneously decided they wanted to list the words they knew on the board for the last few minutes of class.  They felt empowered watching the list grow.

Did this or any skill-building or vocabulary activity help them acquire language?  No, but it felt fun and generated interest in hearing more stories. Story Listening may be used with occasional fun, low-accountability activities, but when the story itself becomes just an “extra activity” it is no longer Story Listening.

Story Listening is telling stories in a comprehensible way, sometimes using targeting 2 to clarify.  According to Dr. Beniko Mason, “A story-listening lesson should not include dictation exercises, should not be accompanied with fill-in-the-blanks, or match-the–short-dialogs-and-the-pictures exercises. It’s the story that counts.”

This method was developed over many decades of research showing that “stories plus activities” contributes to second language acquisition less efficiently than stories alone (Mason 2013, 2007, 2004).  Yes, telling stories in any form will provide the input needed to show growth, but choosing to cut out “extra activities” for time’s sake is more efficient.

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Craftsman who create something elegantly simple and streamlined would be frustrated to then see the clutter re-appear.  They would want to distance their work from those who seek to add back in the unnecessary extras.

Some “educational consultants” are no doubt hoping to use Story Listening as the latest buzzword activity at their next conference, but Story Listening is more about what we chose not to do than what we are doing.  Story Listening is unburdening teachers from too many extra activities, and finding time for stories.  Story Listening is simply reminding ourselves that although it is not as flashy as the latest Breakout activity and it won’t get you as many re-tweets: “It’s the story that counts.”

 

“A child sitting in a quiet room with a good book isn’t a flashy or marketable teaching method. It just happens to be the only way anyone ever became a reader.”

-Nancie Atwell


 

Cited:

Mason, B. (2013). Efficient use of literature in second language education: Free reading and listening to stories. In J. Bland and C. Lutge (Eds.), Children’s literature in second language education (pp. 25-32). London: Bloomsbury.  Available at: http://www.benikomason.net/content/articles/the_efficient_use_of_literature_in_second_language_education.pdf

Mason, B. (2004). The effect of adding supplementary writing to an extensive reading program.  The International Journal of Foreign Language Teaching (IJFLT), 2(2): 12-15.

Mason, B.  (2007). The Efficiency of Self-Selected Reading and Hearing Stories on Adult Second Language Acquisition s, more efficient.  “Selected Papers from the sixteenth international symposium on English Teaching.” English Teachers’ Association / ROC, Taipei: 630-633.  Accessed at: http://beniko-mason.net/content/articles/the_efficiency_of_self-selected_reading_and_hearing_stories_on_adult_second_language_acquisition.pdf

Story Listening + Book Talk

Is it a Book Talk or Story Listening? Is sharing your favorite cars magazines Free Voluntary Reading or can it morph into content-based instruction?  When sharing books and stories that inspire genuine curiosity, my classroom will not be limited to a single method.

Here I combine Story Listening with a Book Talk on the book Cardboard by Doug Tennapel.  The overlap between Story Listening and Sheltered Popular Literature is obvious: there is no test or comprehension questions, just an invitation to join in a good story.  (Note, the book was swooped up by an eager reader before the end of the Book Talk.)

A Story Listening Identity

My students have started to identify as folklorists.  “I know so many stories,” they boast.  Like generations before them, they succumb to the urge to retell the stories to friends and family.  On their own time, they research and request lesser known folktales.  Just like FVR, Story Listening helps children develop an identity that connects them to the world in a bigger way–a Story Listening identity.